Geological Heritage, Biodiversity and Culture Linkage in Raja Ampat Geopark: An Introduction


  • Ana R Septiana Independent
  • Yusdi N Lamatenggo Independent
  • Hanang Samodra2 Independent
  • M Hanif Fikri Chiba University



Geological Heritage, Biodiversity, Culture Linkage


Raja Ampat became globally known since researeh results revealed the magnificence of its marine biodiversity that was incomparable, and became the best tourism diving destination. As part of the Geopark, understanding of science and knowledge from various fields has been gradually revealed and curated in Raja Ampat. This article will be an introduction to the disclosure of the relationship between geological heritage, biodiversity, and culture in the Raja Ampat Geopark, synthesized through literature studies, interviews and ground checks conducted by various parties. As a result, at least three relations was explained, i.e. (1) the historical biogeographic events of Raja Ampat determined the form of thirteen terrestrial ecosystems and the present of endemic species; (2) the geological heritage of dolines and lagoons creates unique ecosystems for certain marine species; (3) also inter-connectivity between nature and the cultural values passed down by Raja Ampat's ancestors that documented in various forms, like wisdom, folklore and art rocks. In conclusion, we also identified challenges and future directions regarding this emerging field, of which has been adapted into ecotourism implementation within Geopark Raja Ampat.


Allen, GR, 2008, Conservation hotspots of biodiversity and endemism for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes, Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Frcshw. Ecosyst. 18: 541-556.

Arman, Ayu, 2019. Raja Ampat: Myths, Legends & Heroism. Jakarta: Nala Publishing House.

Beer, AJE, 2015, diversity and abundance of sharks in no-take and fished sites in the Marine protected area network of raja ampat, west papua, indonesia, using Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUVs), Royal Roads University (Thesis).

BMK.G (Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency), 2019, Climate Variability in Indonesia, publikasi- klimat/ ftp/ brosur/ LEAFLETINGGRISB.pdf

Christian, JR, R Murtugudde, J Ballabcrcra-Poy, CR Me Clain, 2004, A Ribbon of dark water: phytoplankton blooms in the meanders of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent, Deep-Sea Researeh II. 51: 209-228.

Dawson MN, Martin LE, Bell LJ, Patris S, 2009, Marine Lakes. In: Gillespie R, Clague DA (eds) Encyclopedia of Islands. University California Press.

Fadilurrahman, M., Kumiawan, T., Ramadhani, Misnasanti, Shaddiq, S., 2021, Systematic Lit-erature Review of Disruption Era in Indonesia: The Resistance of Industrial Revolution 4.0, Journal of Robotics and Control (JRC) Vol 2 (1), 51 - 59.

Kim MK, Douglas MM, Pannell D, Setterfield SA, Hill R, Laborde S, Pcrrott L, Alvarez-Romero JG, Beesley L, Canham C and Breckncll A, 2022, When to Use Transdisciplinary Ap-proaches for Environmental Researeh. Front. Environ. Sci. 10: 840569.

Lamatenggo Y N, 2018, Membangun Pariwisata Raja Ampat, PowerPoint slides. (Unpublished)

Lcihitu, Irsyad and RCE Pcrmana, 2019, A Reflection of Painting Tradition and Culture of the Austronesian Based on the Rock Art in Misool, Raja Ampat, West Papua, JATI-Joumal of Southeast Asian Studies. Vol 41(1): 220-242.

Maas, Dicdc L., Agustin Capriati, Awaludinnocr Ahmad, Mark V. Erdmann, Machicl Larners, Christiaan A. de Leeuw, Luca Prins, Purwanto, Amanda P. Putri, Ricardo F. Tapilatu, Leontine E. Becking, 2020, Recognizing peripheral ecosystems in marine protected areas: A case study of golden jellyfish lakes in Raja Ampat, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 151, 1-11.

Marshall, A.J. and B.M. Beehlcr, 2007, Ecology of Indonesia Papua - Part One. Singapore: Pcriplus Edition.

Management Body of Raja Ampat Geopark, 2017, Dossier of Raja Ampat National Geopark: The Emerald Karst of the Equator. (Unpublished).

Management Body of Raja Ampat Geopark, 2021, Dossier of Raja Ampat Aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark: The Emerald Karst of the Equator. (Unpublished).

McKenna S A, G R Allen and S Suryadi (eds.), 2002, A Marine Rapid Assessment of the Raja Ampat Islands, Papua Province, Indonesia, Washington: RAP Bulletin of Biological Assess-ment 22.

Prado, Federico, 2022, Biodiversity in Paradise - a Natural History of Raja Am-pat.

( diving/biodiversity-in-paradise-a-natural-history-of-raj a-ampat-by-fcderico-prada/)

Purba, Gandi.Y.S., E. Haryono, Sunarto, J. Manan, L. Rumcnta, Purwanto, L.E. Becking, 2018, Jellyfish Lakes at Misool Islands, Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia, Biodiversitas 19: 172 - 182.

Raja Ampat Regency Government, 2020, Presentation of Regent for Ministry of Coordinating for Maritime Affairs and Investment: Welcome to Raja Ampat. (Unpublished).

Raja Ampat Regency Statistics, 2021, Raja Ampat Regency in Figures (Waisai: BPS-Statistics of Raja Ampat Regency).

Ramadhan, MF, DN Sugianto, A Wirasatrya, H Setiyono, Kunarso, and L Maslukah, 2020, Characteristics of Halmahera Eddy and its relation to sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a, and thermocline layer, IOP Conf. Ser.: EarthEnviron. Sei. 530: 012039

Rocha, P.L.B., Pardini, R., Viana, B.F. et al, 2020, Fostering inter- and transdisciplinarity in discipline-oriented universities to improve sustainability science and practice, Sustain Sei 15, 717-728.

Samodra, H., Y.N. Lamatenggo, A.R. Septiana, Mustajir, I. Komoo, N. Ahmad, N. Azman, 2021, Raja Ampat Geopark: The Jewel of Tropical Island Karst. (Waisai: Tourism Raja Am-pat).

Septiana, A.R., H. Samodra, Y.N. Lamatenggo, 2023, Geopark as a Participatory Collaborative Management Concept to Manage the Raja Ampat Arehipelago. 1st International Symposium on Eastern Indonesian Marine Ecosystems (1st ISEIME 2022). [Paper is submitted in the Morress-ier platform],

Setyawan E, Erdmann MV, Mambrasar R, Hasan AW, Sianipar AB, Constantine R,Stevenson BC and Jainc FRA, 2022, Residency and Use of an Important Nursery Habitat, Raja Ampat’s Wayag Lagoon, by Juvenile Reef Manta Rays (Mobula alfredi). Front. Mar. Sei. 9: Article 815094.

Speers, A. E., Besedin, E. Y, Palardy, J. E., & Moore, C., 2016, Impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on coral reef fisheries: An integrated ecological-economic model. Ecological Economics, 128, 33^13. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.04.012.

Suharyo, GBT, NP Purba, LPS Yuliardi, ML Syamsudin, 2020, Temperature and salinity and its correlation with eddy variability in Halmahera dan Mindanao Waters, Depik Jumal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan, Pesisir dan Pcrikanan 9(3): 421-427.

Supartoyo; Surono; Eka Tofani Putranto, 2014, M. Hcndrasto (cd.), Katalog gempabumi mcru-sak di Indonesia tahun 1612 - 2014, (in Indonesian), Volcanological Survey of Indonesia. Re-trieved 8 April 2022.

TNC, WWF, and Raja Ampat Regency Government, 2022, Report on a Rapid Ecological As-sessment of the Raja Ampat Island, Papua, Eastern Indonesia (October 30 -November 2022).

UNESCO, 2023, International Geoscience and Gcopark Programme: Raja Ampat UNESCO Global Geopark -Indonesia ( /iggp /geoparks /raja-ampat)

Walter, A. I., Helgcnberger, S., Wiek, A., and Scholz, R.W., 2007, Measuring Societal Ef-fects of Transdisciplinary Researeh Projects: Design and Application of an Evaluation Method. Eval. Program Plann. 30 (4), 325-338