Simple Shear Mechanism to Revealing Geological Complexity of Geosite Assessment in the Bukit Duabelas National Park Jambi Province, Indonesia


  • Hari Wiki Utama Geological Engineering, Universitas Jambi
  • Rakhmatul Arafat Merangin Jambi UNESCO Global Geopark Management
  • Bagus Adhitya Geological Engineering, Universitas Jambi
  • Yulia Morsa Said Geological Engineering, Universitas Jambi
  • Arsyad AR Agroecotechnology, Universitas Jambi
  • Gindo Tampubolon Agroecotechnology, Universitas Jambi
  • Agus Kurniawan Mastur Agroecotechnology, Universitas Jambi
  • Itang Ahmad Mahbub Agroecotechnology, Universitas Jambi
  • Yusmansyah Siregar Geological Engineering, Universitas Jambi
  • Ignatia Tri Astuti Geological Engineering, Universitas Jambi
  • M. Fauzi Fauzi Geological Engineering, Universitas Jambi



Simple Shear Mechanism, Geological Complexity, Geosite Assessment


Bukit Duabelas National Park (BDNP) Jambi Province is a national protected area that has geodiversity. BDNP forms northwest – southeast oriented, morphologically connected to the Barisan Mountains by the Bangko Basin. Digital elevation model observations show that the morphological orientation of these hills is surrounded by valleys and plains occupied by Paleogene-Neogene sedimentary rocks. The presence of Schist Terantam Formation provides interesting information about the exposed basement. This research uses remote sensing, field observations and stratigraphic analysis, as well as assessing geological complexity. The BDNP Territory is geologically influenced by geological structures such as faults and folds as a result of the simple shear deformation mechanism. Schist from the Terantam Formation and Granite and Pegmatite Intrusions are a consequence of simple shear mechanisms and tectonic orogenesis. Geological complexity of geosite assessment based on the criteria of petrological features, landscape, age of formation, fossil appear, tectonic basement, basement group, cultural diversity, other geological information. The proposed geosite is Terantam Inselberg which is composed of the Terantam Formation of Carboniferous and Jurassic-age of Granite and Pegmatite. The uniqueness of this proposed geosite is that the rocks exposed are the oldest basement rocks on the Sumatra Island. The landscape with Inselberg morphology, of course, is unique and is very rarely found in other areas, then the presence of ethnic groups from the Inner Child Tribe who inhabit the area characterizes cultural diversity. Comparing this proposed geosite with geosites of national and international value in the MJUGGp Territory, it can be concluded that the Terantam Inselberg Geosite is in between the two positions.


Advokaat, E.L., Bongers, M.L.M., Rudyawan, A., Fadel, M.K.B., Langereis, C.G., and van Hinsbergen, D. J.J. (2018). Early Cretaceous origin of the Woyla Arc (Sumatra, Indonesia) on the Australian Plate. Earth and Planetery Science Letters, vol. 498, pp. 348-361.

Akbar, A.R., Utama, H.W. (2021). Analisis Fasies Sedimen Batulempung Airbenakat Sub-Cekungan Jambi, Cekungan Sumatra Selatan Berdasarkan Profil Penampang Stratigrafi di Dae-rah Sungai Rotan, Tanjung Barat. Lembaran Publikasi Minyak dan Gas Bumi, vol. 55, pp. 13-24.

Allen, P.A., & Allen, J.R. (2005). Basin Analysis Principles and Applications, Second Edition. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, United State of America

Ariani, R.P., Utama, H.W. (2022). Petrogenesis and Geological Structure of Tantan Granitoidin Sungai Manau District, Merangin Regency, Jambi Province. Eksplorium, vol. 43, pp. 79-88 .

Antić, A., and Tomić, N . ( 2017). Geoheritage and geotourism potential of the Homolje area (eastern Serbia). Acta Geoturistica, 8(2), 67–78. https:// :8:y:2017:i:2:p:67-78:n:4

Barber, A. J., Crow, M.J. (2009). Structure of Sumatra and its implications for the tectonic as-sembly of Southeast Asia and the destruction of Paleotethys. Island Arc, vol. 18, pp. 3-20.

Brahmantyo, B. (2013). Geotourism in Indonesian perpectives. Dalam Proceeding HAGI-AIGI Joint Convention, Medan

Chen, A., Lu, Y., & Ng, Y. C. Y. (2015). The Principle of Geotourism. Springer, 264.

Cooper, P. E. (2010). Geotourism in Volcanic and Geothermal Environments: Playing with Fire? Geoheritage, 187–193.

Crow, M.J., Van Waveren, I.M., Hasibuan, F. (2019). The geochemistry, tectonic and paleoge-ographic setting of the Karing Volcanic Complex and the Dusunbaru pluton, an early Permian volcanic-plutonic centre in Sumatra, Indonesia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 169, pp. 257-283.

Crow, M.J., Van Waveren, I.M., Hasibuan, F. (2015). Two Hg-Au occurrences in the West Sumatra Permian Volcanic-Plutonic Arc west of Bangko, Sumatra. In: PACRIM 2015 Con-gress. Hong Kong, pp. 573–578

Davis, G. H., Reynolds, S. J., & Kluth, C. F. (2012). Structural Geology of Rock and Regions: Third Edition. United States of America: John and Wiley and Sons, Inc

Farsani, N.T., Coelho, C., & Costa, C. (2011). Geotourism and Geoparks as Novel Strategies for Socio-economic Development in Rural Areeas. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(1), 68–81.

Farsani, Neda Torabi, Coelho, C., & Costa, C. (2012). Geotourism and Geoparks as Gateways to Socio-cultural Sustainability in Qeshm Rural Areas, Iran. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(1), 30–48.

Fossen, H. (2010). Structural Gology. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press

Hall, R. (2012). Late Jurassic–Cenozoic reconstructions of the Indonesian region and the Indian Ocean. Tectonophysics, vol. 570-571, pp. 1-41.

Hall, R. (2013). The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic. Jour-nal of Limnology, 72, 1-17.

Henstock, T. J., McNeill, L. C., Bull, J. M., Cook, B. J., Gulick, S. P. S., Austin, J. A., Per-mana, H., dan Djajadihardja, Y. S. (2016). Downgoing plate topography stopped rupture in the A.D. 2005 Sumatra earthquake. Geology, vol. 44, pp. 71–74

Hutchison, C.S. (2014). Tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. Bulletin of the Geological Socie-ty of Malaysia, vol. 60, pp. 1-18.

Hutchison, C.S. (2010). Oroclines and Paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia. Tecto-nophysics, vol. 496, pp. 53-67.doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2010.10.008

Hutchison, C.S. (2005). Geology of North-West Borneo. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 421 hal. Geolo-gy of North-West Borneo - 1st Edition (

Hutchison, C.S. (2009). Metamorphism, Chapter 11, In: Hutchison, C.S. and Tan, D.N.K. (eds.) Geology of Peninsular Malaysia. Geological Society of Malaysia & University of Ma-laya, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 233-247.doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2009.12.012

Kale, V.S., Sengupta, S., Achyuthan, H., Jaiswal, M.J.K. (2014). Tectonic controls upon Ka-veri River drainage, cratonic Peninsular India: Inferences from longitudinal profiles, morphotec-tonic indices, hanging valleys and fluvial records. Geomorphology, vol. 227, pp. 153-165.

Lange, D., Tilmann, F., Henstock, T., Rietbrock, A., Natawidjaja, D.H., Kopp. H. (2018). Structure of the central Sumatran subduction zone revealed by local earthquake travel-time to-mography using an amphibious network. Solid Earth, vol. 9, pp. 1035-1049.

Liu, S., Suardi, I., Xu, X., Yang, S., Tong, P. (2021). The Geometry of the Subducted Slab Be-neath Sumatra Revealed by Regional and Teleseismic Traveltime Tomography. Journal Geo-physics Reservoir Solid Earth, vol. 126, pp. 1-29. 10.1029/2020JB020169.

McNeill, L. C. dan Henstock, T. J. (2014). Forearc structure and morphology along the Suma-tra-Andaman subduction zone, Tectonics, vol. 33, ha. 112–134,

Metcalfe, I. (2013a). Gondwana dispersion and Asian accretion: Tectonic and palaeogeographic evolution of eastern Tethys. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 66, 1-33.

Metcalfe, I. (2013b). Tectonic Evolution of the Malay Peninsula. Journal of Asian Earth Sci-ences, 76, 195–213.

Metcalfe, I. (2017). Tectonic Evolutions of Sundaland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, vol. 63, pp. 27-60.

Moufti, M. R., & Nemeth, K. (2016). Geoheritage of Volcanic Harrats in Saudi Arabia; Geo-heritage, Geopark, and Geotourism. Springer, 194

Mulyasari, R., Utama, H.W., Haerudin, N. (2019). Geomorphology study on the Bandar Lam-pung Capital City for recommendation of development area. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Envi-ronmental Science 279, 012026. The International Conference on Geoscience, Makassar, Indo-nesia, vol. 279, pp. 012026-1 – 012026-13.doi:10.1088/1755-1315/279/1/012026

Nabella, F., Utama, H.W., Said, Y.M. (2019). Geology and Genesis of the Tanco Isolated Hill on the Kerinci Lake, Jambi. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 279, 012027. The International Conference on Geoscience, Makassar, Indonesia, vol. 279, pp. 012027-1 – 012027-13.

Najili, A., Sendjaja, P., Priadi, B., Setiawan, V.E., Hartono, B.M. (2021). Petrogenesis of Pre-Tertiary A-Type Granitoid in Jambi Area and its Implications of Rare Earth Element Potential on Main Range Sumatra Belt. Indonesian Journal of Economic Geology, vol. 1, pp. 49-71.

Natawidjaja, D.H. (2015). Siklus mega-tsunami di wilayah Aceh-Anda-man dlam konteks sejarah. RISET, vol. 25: 49–62. doi:10.14203/risetgeotam2015.v25.107

Natawidjaja, D.H. (2018). Major bifurcations, slip rates and a creeping segment of Su-matran fault zone in Tarutung–Sarulla–Sipirok–Padangsidempuan, Central Sumatra, Indone-sia. Indonesian Jour-nal of Geoscience, vol. 5: 137–160.doi:10.17014/ijog.5.2.137-160

Natawidjaja, D.H. (2017). Updating active fault maps and sliprates along the Sumatran Fault Zone, Indonesia. Dalam: Qlobal Qolloqium on Geoscience and Engineering 2017. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science , 118 (012001). doi :10.1088/1755-1315/118/1/012001

Otofuji, Y., Moriyama, Y.T., Arita, M.P., Miyazaki, M., Tsumura, K., Yoshimura, Y., Shuib, M.K., Sone, M., Miki, M., Uno, K., Wada, Y., Zaman, H. (2017). Tectonic evolution of the Malay Peninsula inferred from Jurassic to Cretaceous paleomagnetic results. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 134, pp. 130-149.DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2016.10.007

Prasetya, N., Lubis, D. E. U., Raharjo, D., Saptadji, N. M., & Pratama, H. B. (2017). Smart Geoenergy Village Development by Using Cascade Direct Use of Geothermal Energy in Bon-jol, West Sumatera. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1–14.

Rosenbaum, G. (2014). Geodynamics of oroclinal bending: insights from the Mediterranean. Journal of Geodynamics, vol. 82, pp. 5-15.

Said, Y.M., Utama, H.W. (2023). Late Cretaceous Andesite Intrusion within Strike-slip Fault of Geological Field Features and Landscape, Jambi, Indonesia. AIP Conference Proceedings 2598, 020005. 4th International Conference on Earth Science, Mineral and Energy, Yogyakarta, Indo-nesia, vol. 2598, pp. 020005-1 – 020005-11.

Said, Y.M., Utama, H.W. (2021). Analisis Morfologi Fisik Kaldera Masurai Jambi Menggunakan Citra Satelit Resolusi Tinggi. Jurnal Geofisika Eksplorasi, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 178-190.

Simandjuntak, T.O., Budhitrisna, T., Surono, Gafoer, S., Amin, T.C. (1994). Peta Geologi Lembar Muarobungo,Sumatra Skala 1:250.000. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi, Bandung.

Syaifullah, M., Utama, H.W. (2021). Petrogenesis Intrusi Granitoid Langkup di Desa Rantau Kermas dan Sekitarnya, Kecamatan Jangkat, Kabupaten Merangin, Provinsi Jambi. Jurnal Ge-osains dan Remote Sensing, vol.2, pp. 41-48.

Siregar, A.D., Utama, H.W. (2020). Petrologi dan Struktur Geologi Daerah Panas Bumi Citan-do Banten. Journal Online of Physics, vol. 6, pp. 32-37.

United State Geological Survey (USGS): Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 30 M, (Retrieved July 07, 2023)

Utama, H.W. (2020). Struktur Geologi dan Vulkanostratigrafi; Analisis Model Elevasi Digital dan Citra Landsat 8. Jurnal Geofisika Eksplorasi, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 156-168.

Utama, H.W., Mulyasari, R., Said, Y.M. (2021). Geothermal Potential on Sumatra Fault Sys-tem To Sustainable Geotourism in West Sumatra. Jurnal Geofisika Eksplorasi, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 126-137.

Utama, H.W., Said, Y.M., Ritonga, D.M.M., Kurniantoro, E. (2021). Geodynamics Relation-ship of Sabak Back Arc Volcanic and Geragai Geothermal Features, Tanjabtim, Jambi, Indone-sia. Atlantis Press; Advances in Engineering Research. Proceedings of the 3rd Green Develop-ment International Conference (GDIC 2020), Jambi, Indonesia, vol. 205, pp. 376-382.10.2991/aer.k.210825.065

Utama, H.W., Said, Y.M., Siregar, A.D., Adhitya, B., Mastur, A.K. (2023). Geochemical Data for Geothermal Exploration on Grao Sakti, Jambi, Indonesia. AIP Conference Proceedings 2482, 080008. The 3rd International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovative Researches, Purbalingga, Indonesia, hal. 080009-1 – 080009-8.

Utama, H.W., Sutarto, Widagdo, A., Wahyudi, E. (2023). Paleovolcanic Karing Reconstruction in The Merangin Jambi UNESCO Global Geopark Territory Based on Petrological and Geo-chemical Approach. Journal Online of Physics, 9 (1), 66-79.

Utama, H.W., Said, Y.M., Siregar, A.D., Adhitya, B. (2021). The Role of Sumatra Fault Zone of Dikit Fault Segment to Appearance of Geothermal Features on the Grao Sakti, Jambi, Indo-nesia. Atlantis Press; Advances in Engineering Research. Proceedings of the 3rd Green Devel-opment International Conference (GDIC 2020), Jambi, Indonesia, vol. 205, pp. 367-375.10.2991/aer.k.210825.065

Utama, H.W., Said, Y.M., Siregar, A.D. (2023). Releasing Bend Structures of Dikit Fault Seg-ment on Grao Sakti, Jambi: Its Related Strike-slip Fault Zone. AIP Conference Proceedings 2482, 080009. The 3rd International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovative Researches, Purbalingga, Indonesia, hal. 080009-1 – 080009-11.

Utama, H.W., Adhitya, B., Arafat, R., Siregar, Y., Astuti, I.T., Fauzi, M., Aulia, M. (2023). Kajian Petrologi Dalam Konservasi Warisan Geologi di Taman Nasional Bukit Duabelas (TNBD) Kabupaten Sarolangun, Jambi. Jurnal Geosains dan Remote Sensing, 4 (2), 91-102.

Utami, P., Khasani, Warmada, I, W., & Wijaya, S. Y. C. (2013). Berwisata dan Belajar Ten-tang Energi Panas Bumi di Lahendong (1st ed.). Pustaka Geo (Smartania Publishing Group) dan Pusat Penelitian Panas Bumi Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Van Leeuwen, T., Allen, M.C., Elburg, M., Massonne H.J., Palin, J.M., Hennig, J. (2016). The Palu Metamorphic Complex, NW Sulawesi, Indonesia: Origin and evolution of a young metamorphic terrane with links to Gondwana and Sundaland. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 115, hal. 133-152.

Van Waveren, I.M., Booi, M., Crow, M.J., Hasibuan, F., Van Konijnburg-Van Cittert, J.H.A., Putri Perdono, A., Schmitz, M.D., Donovan, S.K., 2018. Depositional settings and changing composition of the Jambi palaeoflora within the Permian Mengkarang Formation (Sumatra, In-donesia). Geol. J. 1–22.

Winter, J.D. 2014. Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (Second Edition). Pearson. USA, 736 pp.

Yuexia, D., Zongju, Z., Zhonghong, C., Jianguo, W., Faxiong, G., Peixi, W., Heyuan, W., Ru-ining, C., Gang, Z., (2015). Exploration potential and signification of Ordovician carbonate karst monadnock traps in Nanpu Sag. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 36(6): 653–663 https://doi: 10.7623/syxb201506002

Yunfeng, Z., Fei, T., Haizhou, Q., Zhiqi, Z., Yong, L., Xinsheng, L., Zhenyu, W., Fang, Q. (2017). Karst monadnock fine characterization and reservoir control analysis: A case from Or-dovician weathering paleokarst reservoirs in Lungu area, Tarim Basin, NW China. Petroleum Exploration And Development, vol. 44, pp. 758-769.https://doi:10.1016/S1876-3804(17)30086-1

Zahirovic, S., Müller, R. D., Seton, M., Flament, N., Gurnis, M., Whittaker, J. (2012). Insights on the kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision from global geodynamic models, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 13, Q04W11 doi:10.1029/2011gc003883

Zahirovic, S., Matthews, K.J., Falment, N., Muller, R.D. Hill, K.C., Seton, M., Gurnis, M. (2016). Tectonic evolution and deep mantle structure of the eastern Tethys since the latest Ju-rassic. Earth Sci. Rev., vol. 162, pp. 293-337.


Zahirovic, S., Muller, R.D., Seton, M., Flament, N. (2015). Tectonic speed limits from plate kinematic reconstructions. Faculty od Science, Medicine and Health-Paper part A. 4238

Zahirovic, S., Flament, N., Muller, D., Seton, M., Hill, K.C., Gurnis, M. (2015). 3-D Plate Tec-tonic Reconstructions of New Guinea Since the Triassic. SEG Global Meeting Abstracts.

Zahirovic, S., Seton, M., Muller, R. (2014). The Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. Solid Earth, vol. 5, pp. 227-235.

Zahirovic, S., Flament, N., Muller, R.D., Seton, M., Gurnis, M. (2016). Large Fluctuations of Shallow Seas in Low-lying Southeast Asia Driven by Mantle Flow, vol. 17, pp. 3589-3607.doi:10.1002/2016GC006434

Zahirovic, S., Salles, T., Muller, D., Gurnis, M., Wenchao, C., Braz, C., Harrington, L., Ibra-him, Y., Garrett, R., Williams, S., Anqing, C., Mingcia, H., Ogg, J.G. (2019). From Paleogeo-graphic Maps to Evolving Deep-time Digital Earth models. Acta Geologica Sinica, vol. 93, pp. 73-75.doi:10.1111/1755-6724.14250